Taxation trends in Western Balkans, 2020

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The publication aims to present and compare the tax systems for six countries in West Balkans according to the tax policies and tax rates in 2020.

The work includes the common and different elements of 6 tax systems and also new developments, investment incentives and rules about doing business in Western Balkans. The treatment of fiscal and financial incentives is presented as a special part for every country, highlighting the importance of that policy measure for investors.


Every chapter is dedicated of the whole tax system of one country of western Balkans.

Domestic tax rules for the taxation of cross-border income generally address two situations: the taxation of outbound investments of resident companies, and the taxation of inbound investments of non-resident companies.

The PE concept effectively acts as a threshold which, by measuring the level of economic presence of a foreign enterprise in a given country through objective criteria, determines the circumstances in which the foreign enterprise can be considered sufficiently integrated into the economy of a state to justify taxation in that state.

Some countries determine the residence of a corporation based on formal criteria such as place of incorporation. In other countries, the residence of a corporation is determined by reference factual criteria such as place of effective management or similar concepts.

Some countries have mixed systems, where there is both a place of incorporation test and a place of effective management test. The chapters discuss the most important principles of tax policy that have traditionally guided the development of tax systems in Western Balkans for the last three decades.

It is also is provided an overview of the principles underlying corporate income tax, focusing primarily on the taxation of cross-border income both under domestic laws and in the context of tax treaties. There are presented the forms of income taxes. Income tax is generally due on the net income realized by the taxpayer over an income period. Income taxes are levied at the place of source. The tax base for it is defined in a variety of ways.

Corporate income tax (CIT) generally relies on a broad tax base, formulated to encompass all types of income derived by the corporation whatever their nature, which encompasses the normal return on equity capital.

An important dedication is the describing of indirect taxes, as an overview of the design features of value added tax, excise duties, and custom duties.